GAGAKU: “elegant/correct/refined music” (bugaku = court dance)

History:
Music imported from Korea (3rd cent.), China and India (7th-8th cent.)
9th century: reform of many styles of imported Asian music
orchestra standardized, classifications created:
Togaku (music of the left; China and India)
Komagaku (music of the right; Korea and Manchuria)
Heian period (8th-12th cent.): gagaku popular at court, practiced by nobility
Vocal styles: roei (Chinese poems); saibara (gagaku-style folk songs);
enkyoku (banquet music); imayo (lyrics set to gagaku melodies).
Post-Heian: end of aristocratic power; court groups scattered;
music maintained by musical families on individual instruments.
Tokugawa (1615-1868): Two main groups (Kyoto w/Emperor; Edo)
Meiji Restoration (1868): Emperor, gagaku department established in Tokyo.

Instruments:
Percussion: colotomic function (marking off units of time)
Tsuridaiko (drum), dadaiko (large drum) - mark off longest time units.
Shoko (gong) - further subdivides time with single beats.
Kakko (horizontal double-headed drum) - regulates tempo of music.
San-no-tsuzumi (hourglass drum) - used in komagaku.
Shakubyoshi (wooden clappers) - used in mi-kagura and vocal music.
Strings: colotomic function
Wagon (6-string zither) - used in mi-kagura; stereotyped patterns.
Gakuso (13-string zither) - stereotyped patterns marking time.
Biwa (4-string plucked lute) - stereotyped arpeggios marking time.
Winds: melodic function
Hichiriki (9-hole oboe) - main melody instrument
Flutes:  melody with slight variations (heterophony)
Kagurabue (transverse flute used in mi-kagura)
Ryuteki (7-hole transverse flute) - used in Togaku (left music)
Komabue (6-hole transverse flute) - used in Komagaku (right music)
Sho (17-pipe mouth organ) - plays continuous chord clusters.

Ensembles:
Togaku, also called kangen (winds and strings)
winds (hichiriki, ryuteki, sho), strings (gakuso, biwa),
percussion (shoko, kakko, taiko)
Komagaku: Same as above except komabue replaces ryuteki;
san-no-tsuzumi replaces kakko; strings are omitted.
Vocal ensembles (saibara and roei):
  smaller ensembles; shakubyoshi (clappers) replace drums.
 
Gagaku theory:

Modal theory: based on ancient Chinese theory
12 pitches as a foundation for 7-note scales.
two scale structures (ryo and ritsu); six modes.

Rhythmic theory: rhythms based on 8, 4, and 2 beats
8 beats (nobebyoshi); 4 (hayabyoshi); 2 (osebyoshi)
Mixed: 2 and 4 (tadabyoshi); 2 and 3 (yatarabyoshi)

Form: Jo-ha-kyu (first appears in gagaku, applied to later Japanese music)
Applied at all levels: structure of musical phrase, composition, concert
Jo - introduction (slow or free rhythm)
Ha - breaking apart; exposition (establishment of rhythm)
Kyu - rushing to a finish (acceleration to a climax, return to Jo).

Jo-ha-kyu in gagaku:
Jo - free meter tuning piece (netori), instruments enter one at a time.
Ha - main body of the composition begins, all instruments enter.
Kyu - gradual increase in tempo until coda, return to free meter.